জলবায়ু পরিবর্তন মােকাবেলায় বাংলাদেশের জাতীয়ভাবে নির্ধারিত অনুমিত অবদান

ভাষান্তর: হাসান মেহেদী | নভেম্বর ২০১৫

এই ভাষান্তরিত সংস্করণটি শুধুমাত্র ধারণাগত উন্নয়ন ও সচেতনায়নে ব্যবহারের জন্য, আইনি ক্ষেত্রে প্রয়োগযোগ্য নয়।

ভূমিকা

২০১৩ সালে পোল্যান্ডরে ওয়ার’শ-তে অনুষ্ঠতি জলবায়ু পরর্বিতন বষিয়ক জাতসিংঘ র্কমকাঠামো সনদ (ইউএনসসিসি)’র উনিশতম সম্মলেনে (কপ’১৯) সিদ্ধান্ত অনুযায়ী সকল সদস্য রাষ্ট্রকে তাঁদের জাতীয়ভাবে নির্ধারিত অনুমতি অবদান ( Intended Nationally Determined Contributions – INDC) প্রণয়নের জন্য জাতীয় পর্যায়ে উদ্যোগ গ্রহণ অথবা গৃহীত উদ্যোগ ত্বরান্বিত করার আহবান জানানো হয়। এই দলিলে ২১০০ সাল নাগাদ বৈশ্বিক তাপমাত্রা বৃদ্ধি ২ ডিগ্রী সেলসিয়াসের মধ্যে রাখার জন্য সদস্য রাষ্ট্রটি জাতীয় দূষণ কী পরিমাণ কমাবে এবং কমানাের জন্য কী ধরণের উদ্যোগ গ্রহণ করবে সে সংক্রান্ত একটি দিক নির্দেশনা চাওয়া হয়। পাশাপাশি জলবায়ু পরিবর্তনের অভিঘাত মোকাবেলায় কি ধরণের অভিযোজন কার্যক্রম গ্রহণ করতে যাচ্ছে তারও একটি বর্ণনা আইএনডিসি’তে প্রত্যাশা করা হয়ছে। এসব কার্যক্রম গ্রহণ করতে সংশ্লষ্টি রাষ্ট্রের কী ধরনের সহায়তার প্রয়োজন তা যেমন এ দলিলে উল্লেখ করার কথা বলা হয়েছে, তেমনি রাষ্ট্রটি জলবায়ু পরিবর্তনের অভঘিাত মোকাবলোয় কী ধরনের সহায়তা করতে পারে কারও একটি দিক-নির্দেশনা চাওয়া হয়েছে।

মূল দলিলের তথ্যসূত্র:

http://moef.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/moef.portal.gov.bd/news/e5b66c44_371b_49e2_99ef_d40e9b4ac029/file-indc.pdf

Dangerous Distractions: Why the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank must help turn the tide on fossil fuels in Bangladesh

Bank Information Center Europe, Coastal Livelihood & Environmental Action Network (CLEAN) and NGO Forum on ADB | July 2019

Summary

From the very beginning, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) committed to being “green” and to support the implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change. But despite these laudable ambitions, it is yet to turn them into reality. The true test for determining the AIIB’s commitment to battling climate change is its track record of lending to date: its portfolio of approved projects. This reveals a troubling picture. Three years after the bank opened, fully 20% of the AIIB portfolio is directly backing fossil fuel projects, in particular natural gas. The AIIB is also channeling funds through financial intermediaries (FIs) – lending to third parties, such as infrastructure funds – resulting in some sub-investments backing fossil fuels and even coal. In contrast, the share of the AIIB’s investments going towards renewable energy is small – only 8% of the overall portfolio.

Harunur Rashid Sagar

Communication Fellow

Harunur Rashid Sagar has been working as Communication Fellow with the organization since November 2020. He is an accomplished mass media and journalism professional with an upheld ability to develop and implement communication strategies that support project management and community-based mechanisms.

Sagar holds a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Photography with a major in Documentary from Osmania University, India and a Bachelor of Social Science degree in Public Administration from Islamic University, Bangladesh.

Documentation of different cultures and traditions is his area of passion. He loves writing, reading, listening to classical music and watching classic movies. He also has an interest in different cuisines.

Sarmin Akter Bristy

Campaign Officer

Sarmin Akter Bristy is working as a Campaign officer at CLEAN (Coastal Livelihood Environment Action Network). She is working on campaign strategies against fossil fuel in Bangladesh. Currently, she is focusing on organizing and coordinating effective campaigns, developing campaign materials to ensure effective engagement of mass people in fossil fuel campaigns in Bangladesh.

She is a young enthusiastic graduate of Environmental Science from Khulna University majoring in remote sensing, waste management, EIA analysis, and water development. Besides her academics, she is also involved at several volunteer programs such as TEDx Khulna, Assistant general secretary at Kristy, and Environmental Awareness Club of Khulna University. She also attended several regional and national summits and workshops including OIC Youth Summit-2020.

Bristy is very much passionate in music and travelling. She loves to explore new places and culture in her free time.

Cyclone Aila 2009: Initial Assessment Report with focus on Khulna District

Kushal Roy, Uthpal Kumar, Hasan Mehedi, Tania Sultana & D M Ershad | May 2009

Research Summary

The devastating cyclone Aila struck the southwestern coastal region of Bangladesh and eastern coast of the neighbouring West Bengal province of India on the mid-day of 25 May 2009. Unlike the Cat-4 cyclone Sidr of 2007, Aila is a Cat-1 cyclonic storm and hunted less lives, but its chain of devastation stayed active longer, even after two weeks of the storm passed. The worst two affected districts are Satkhira and Khulna followed by Bagerhat, Pirojpur, Barisal, Patuakhali, Bhola, Laksmipur, Noakhali, Feni, Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar. This Initial Assessment Report is prepared focusing on Khulna District only. The worst affected upazilas of Khulna district are Koyra, Dacope, Paikgacha and Batiaghta. According to the official statistics 545,954 people of 118,757 families are affected in Khulna while death toll stands on 45 as of 3 June 2009. Loss of livestock and poultry has been reported as 2080 and 24505, respectively. In total 367 km of road has been fully damaged while 1065 km of road is partially damaged. About 7392 acres of agricultural land has been damaged although estimates of crop damage are not confirmed yet. The horrifying fact is about 594 km of embankment has been damaged which is still letting the river water to freely flow on land and lengthening the stay of waterlogged conditions. Diarrhoea has broken out in the district as 3700 and 4500 people are reported as affected in Dacope and Koyra, respectively. The scenario revealed by the unofficial sources and the survey teams are more horrifying. Death toll, as on 3 June 2009, climbs up to 109 only in Koyra and Dacope. In these two upazilas, incidents of diarrhoeal diseases have crossed 16000, reports quoting locals. Six (6) deaths due to dirrhoea till date also have been confirmed. Loss of livestock and poultry, as observed, might well exceed 13000 and 23000, respectively. Figures of injured livestock and poultry also might well surpass 60,000 and 200,000 respectively, of which a major portion is on the verge of near death. Aila took a heavy toll on agriculture and fisheries. A total of 23,905 hectares of gher and 435 hectares of ponds are still inundated in Khulna and the survey team observed a total loss in culture fisheries. Koyra, Dacope and Paikgacha upazilas also suffered a total loss of crop. Cyclone Aila inflicted a heavy damage on coastal livelihoods. Water, dry food, shelter and proper medication are four highest priority areas for assistance now. There is also a dire need for proper sanitation facilities. Restoration and repairing of roads and embankments are also high priority areas of concern. As repair of embankments should take a while, emergency assistance is required for the affected people to cover up to 3-4 months of food and shelter security, while extended relief assistance might be needed in some worst affected areas. There is also an urgent need to start recovery and rehabilitation program as Aila features a mammoth damage on physical structures. Special and emergency assistance are required for the people of remote areas who are still surrounded by water. The expansion of safety nets for relief, and an early start up of public work schemes are necessary to generate employment and household income in the area might be the key strategies for early recovery. Immediate recovery, long term recovery and rehabilitation and repair of embankments should serve as the strongest elements of a sound planning with emphasis to investigate the causes of this mass destruction from a relatively weak cyclone and taking proper action to reduce future risks. We observed that, despite being a Cat-1 cyclone, Aila took a heavy toll on the coastal people’s livelihoods. The main damage was done by the flooding of water breached through the damaged embankments all round the district. It was found that there is a one-to-one relationship between the damage of the embankment and breaching activities by the shrimp farmers near the particular embankment. Affected communities reported that, frequent breaching of the embankments to lift saline water in ghers made the half-century old embankments quite weak and led it break down during the tidal surge inflicted by cyclone Aila. Negligence in properly repairing the embankments with a buffer zone in a place has also contributed to the damage of the embankment. Moreover, silting up of the river beds in region has also forced the tidal surge and usual river flow to put immense continuous pressure on the embankments to make them even weaker. It’s not Aila that solely responsible for the havoc in the coast of Bangladesh, rather it’s the failure of the embankment to protect the coastal belt from storm surge that is majorly responsible for the said wreckage.

Roy K., Kumar U., Mehedi H., Sultana T. and Ershad D M (2009). Cyclone Aila 2009: Initial Assessment Report with focus on Khulna District. Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273771123_Cyclone_Aila_2009_Initial_Assessment_Report_with_focus_on_Khulna_District. Accessed on: 18 March 2021

CYCLONE AILA-DISPLACED PEOPLE in the Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh: A Case Study of Climate-Induced Migration

Hasan Mehedi, Ziaul Hoque Mukta, Kushal Roy & Anup Kumar Nag| November 2010

Research Summary

This study is actually a preliminary work to track down the displacement of people following the flooding disaster ‘cyclone Aila-2009′ in the southwest coast of Bangladesh. Objectives were set to identify the number of people who are displaced and locations where they were displaced from including identifying the reasons of such displacement and explore the social-economic whereabouts of these people who are displaced and taken refuge in various regions of the country. The study estimated the number of displaced people is about 123,000 from 13 unions of 4 Upazilas. The destinations of the migrated people include Khulna, Satkhira, Jessore, West-Bengal (India), Dhaka and Chittagong, based on priority. These displaced people feature forced change of occupation and found to be in chaos due to lack of skills in the newly adopted jobs. Most of these people have taken day labourship and rickshaw pulling as primary occupation and inhabited the old slum areas of the cities. Some new temporary slums also have been reported. Potable water and sanitation coverage has been found a minimal or nonexistent in the reported slums. Housing and education facilities have also been found as absent. However, the study found a correlation between the displaced peoples’ education and wealth with relocated living conditions as refugees or temporary migrants. The higher the education and income level the higher the living status of the displaced people in relocated regions. Relatives in distant regions have become handy for these people. Of the displaced people, the bulk of them came from Koyra and Dacope Upazila. This displacement was triggered by loss of homestead due to prolonged water logging and lack of job opportunities followed by potable water and sanitation facilities. Almost of 90% of the displaced people were from low to very income group (i.e., BDT 5000 per month). Migration was found to have lesser extent in the wealthier groups. Is has been found that about half of the displaced people (40%) are still unemployed. Most of the forced migrants are depending on govt. facilities for drinking water (roadside tap establishments, govt. owned tube wells etc.). Education and health services in the slum areas (where the migrants are living) were found to be minimum or absent. The recent trend of migration shows that the pace of migration is slowing down but hasn’t stopped yet. To ensure basic human rights of the climate induced displaced peoples, a national policy of resettlement and capacity building is essential. Besides, a new protocol for Climate Migrants recognizing them as Universal Natural Person.

Mehedi H., Mukta Z. H., Roy K. and Nag A. K. (2010). CYCLONE AILA-DISPLACED PEOPLE in the Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh A Case Study of Climate-Induced Migration. Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281282646_CYCLONE_AILA-DISPLACED_PEOPLE_in_the_Southwest_Coastal_Region_of_Bangladesh_A_Case_Study_of_Climate-Induced_Migration. Accessed on: 18 March 2021

Flip-Chart: Tax Justice in Agriculture Sector of Bangladesh

Hasan Mehedi, Nurul Alam Masud & Shahidul Islam | December 2014

Research Summary

Agriculture is the largest employment sector of Bangladesh. 49% of total labour force is involved with agriculture. Tax Justice in Agriculture is crucially important to ensure proper employment, food security and sustainable growth.

Mehedi H., Masud N. A. and Islam S. (2014). Flip-Chart: Tax Justice in Agriculture Sector of Bangladesh. Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283295912_Flip-Chart_Tax_Justice_in_Agriculture_Sector_of_Bangladesh. Accessed on: 18 March 2021

Participatory Study on Oil Spillage Disaster in the Sundarbans: Impact on Biodiversity and Peoples Livelihood

Hasan Mehedi, Md. Rezaul Karim & Palash Das | Jan 2015

Research Summary

The Sundarbans is one of the World’s natural Heritage Site and Ramsar site. It is the largest single tract mangrove forest of the world with rich biodiversity resources. A local oil-tanker ‘OT Southern Star-7’ sank on 9th December 2014 with 367 metric ton furnace oil after a hit by another cargo vessel ‘MT Total’ in Shela River of the Sundarbans, which is only 6 kilometers from Mongla sea port. It was the fourth incident of oil spillage in the Sundarbans since 1990. The place where it took place is a wildlife sanctuary for aquatic fauna including rare Irrawaddy and Ganges dolphin along with Bengal tiger, deer, wild boar etc. The concerned institutions which include Bangladesh Navy, Mongla Port Authority (MPA), Forest Department (FD), Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA) or Bangladesh Shipping Corporation (BSC), Department of Environment (DOE) and Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC) failed to take an immediate and effective decision to reduce vulnerability of world largest single tract mangrove forest.

Mehedi H., Karim M. R. and Das P. (2015). Participatory Study on Oil Spillage Disaster in the Sundarbans: Impact on Biodiversity and Peoples Livelihood. Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/294581386_Participatory_Study_on_Oil_Spillage_Disaster_in_the_Sundarbans_Impact_on_Biodiversity_and_Peoples_Livelihood. Accessed on: 18 Mar 2021

Bhola Integrated Power Plant (Bhola IPP) and its Impact on Local Communities: Voices from the Ground: A Civil Society Study Report

Hasan Mehedi & Md. Sajjad Hossain Tuhin | September 2018

Research Summary

Bhola is the only island district of Bangladesh under the administrative division of Barisal in Bangladesh. Mumbai based Shapoorji Pallonji Infrastructure Capital Company Private Limited (SP Infra), a subsidiary of SP Group is constructing a 220/225 MW Gas and Diesel based power plant through its new company Nutan Bidyut Bangladesh Limited (NBBBL) in Kutba area under Burhanuddin Upazila in Bhola. NBBL has received USD 60.00 million from Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and signed another agreement for USD 60.00 million from Islamic Development Bank (IsDB). Bangladesh Working Group on External Debt (BWGED) and CLEAN (Coastal Livelihood and Environmental Action Network) in collaboration with NGO Forum on ADB conducted a study on social and environmental impacts of the power plant along with potential violation of national and international standards.

Mehedi H. and Tuhin S. H. (2018). Bhola Integrated Power Plant (Bhola IPP) and its Impact on Local Communities: Voices from the Ground: A Civil Society Study Report. Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328980276_Bhola_Integrated_Power_Plant_Bhola_IPP_and_its_Impact_on_Local_Communities_Voices_from_the_Ground_A_Civil_Society_Study_Report Accessed on 10 Feb 2021

AIIB Funded Power System Upgrade and Expansion Project Promotes Coal & Other Fossil Fuels

Hasan Mehedi | October 2019

Research Summary

AIIB has invested USD 405.00 million in four energy-related projects in Bangladesh. Power System Upgrade and Expansion Project (PSUEP) in Chattogram zone is one of the stand-alone projects to be implemented by Power Grid Company of Bangladesh (PGCB), a state-owned enterprise under Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB). The objective of the project is contrary. It intends to upgrade and expand the power transmission system in Chattogram zone to ensure adequate and reliable power supply. But the reality is 91% people of the zone has already covered under national grid. So, the project is obviously not for the communities in Chattogram. Rather there is a clear link between AIIB financed PSEUP and coal power plants surrounding Chattogram-Cox’s Bazar zone.

Mehedi H. (2019). AIIB Funded Power System Upgrade and Expansion Project Promotes Coal & Other Fossil Fuels Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338702089_AIIB_Funded_Power_System_Upgrade_and_Expansion_Project_Promotes_Coal_Other_Fossil_Fuels Accessed on 10 Feb 2021